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西安不銹鋼換熱管與管板的焊接工藝

日期: 2021-09-06 22:12
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摘要: <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋體;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋體;">西安</span></span><span style="font-family:宋體;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋體;">不銹鋼換熱管與管板的焊接</span></span><span style="font-family:宋體;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋體;">工藝</span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋體;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋體;">西安</span></span><span style="font-family:宋體;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋體;">不銹鋼換熱管與管板的焊接</span></span><span style="font-family:宋體;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋體;">工藝</span></span><span style="font-family:宋體;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋體;">結構可分為正面、背面形成焊縫兩類。選擇哪種結構,需要看具體的使用條件,即是否存在間隙腐蝕(不銹鋼換熱管與管板管孔的間隙),以及不銹鋼換熱管和管板的材料的加工機械性能,焊接冶金性能,并結合加工裝備和技術能力綜合考慮。</span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋體;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:Calibri;">&nbsp;</span><span style="font-family:宋體;">一 管板正面形成焊縫</span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋體;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋體;">與背面焊相比,正面焊加工和焊接引對簡便,但無論是脹還是不脹,正面焊焊后都有焊縫根部的應力集中問題,并且換熱管與管板管孔間隙無法完全消除,存在間隙腐蝕的條件。</span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋體;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋體;">如上面兩個截圖所示,</span><span style="font-family:宋體;">“正面形成焊縫”又可以分為: </span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋體;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:Calibri;">1. </span><span style="font-family:宋體;">正面角焊縫式</span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋體;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋體;">換熱管管端伸出管板,可形成各種焊腳高度尺寸的焊縫。這個焊腳尺寸需要強度校核的,這種型式便于計算不過時調整。</span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋體;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋體;">這種結構手工焊和自動焊均可。多道焊時,在完成打底焊后可進行目測檢查和</span><span style="font-family:Calibri;">PT</span><span style="font-family:宋體;">,以控制根部焊縫質量。</span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋體;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋體;">另外,這種結構在制造時可預先將管端伸出管板足夠長,待焊接完成后,可對整個管板的管口端部進行機械加工,使所有管口端面在同一水平面上。對于生產工藝上要求管內壁形成均勻液膜立式安裝的換熱器、冷凝器,可采用這種結構。</span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋體;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋體;">不過,這種角焊縫的缺點在于,由于管端突出,比起入口圓滑的換熱管與管板平齊、換熱管端下沉的結構,它會產生較大的入口斷面收縮率(參考文獻如此,個人不太理解),在管口可能存在介質沖蝕。</span></span> </p>

西安不(bu)銹鋼換熱管與管板的焊接工(gong)藝(yi)

西(xi)安不(bu)銹鋼換熱管與管板的(de)焊接工藝結構(gou)可分為正面、背(bei)面形成(cheng)焊(han)縫兩類。選擇哪種結構(gou),需要看具體(ti)的使用條件,即是(shi)否(fou)存在間隙腐蝕(不(bu)銹鋼換熱管(guan)(guan)與管(guan)(guan)板(ban)管(guan)(guan)孔(kong)的間隙),以及不(bu)銹鋼換熱管(guan)(guan)和管(guan)(guan)板(ban)的材料的加工(gong)機(ji)械(xie)性能(neng),焊(han)接(jie)冶(ye)金性能(neng),并結合加工(gong)裝備和技術能(neng)力綜合考慮。

 一 管板正面形成(cheng)焊縫

與背(bei)面(mian)焊(han)(han)相比(bi),正面(mian)焊(han)(han)加工和焊(han)(han)接引對簡便,但無(wu)論是(shi)脹(zhang)還是(shi)不(bu)脹(zhang),正面(mian)焊(han)(han)焊(han)(han)后都有焊(han)(han)縫根部(bu)的應力集中問題,并且(qie)換熱管與管板管孔間隙無(wu)法(fa)完全消除,存在間隙腐(fu)蝕的條件。

如上面兩個截圖(tu)所示,“正(zheng)面形(xing)成焊縫”又可(ke)以分為:

1. 正面角(jiao)焊縫式

換熱管管端伸出(chu)管板,可形(xing)成各種(zhong)焊(han)腳高度(du)尺寸的焊(han)縫。這(zhe)個焊(han)腳尺寸需(xu)要(yao)強度(du)校核的,這(zhe)種(zhong)型式便于計算不過時(shi)調整。

這種結構手工焊(han)和(he)自動焊(han)均(jun)可。多道焊(han)時,在(zai)完(wan)成打底(di)焊(han)后可進行目測檢查(cha)和(he)PT,以控制根(gen)部(bu)焊縫質量。

另外,這(zhe)種(zhong)結構(gou)在制造時可(ke)預先將管端伸(shen)出(chu)管板(ban)足夠(gou)長,待焊接(jie)完成后,可(ke)對整個(ge)管板(ban)的(de)管口(kou)(kou)端部進行(xing)機械(xie)加工(gong)(gong),使所有管口(kou)(kou)端面在同一水平面上。對于生產工(gong)(gong)藝上要求管內壁(bi)形成均勻液膜立式安裝的(de)換熱器、冷(leng)凝器,可(ke)采(cai)用這(zhe)種(zhong)結構(gou)。

不(bu)過,這種(zhong)角焊(han)縫的(de)(de)(de)缺(que)點在(zai)于(yu),由于(yu)管端(duan)突出,比起入(ru)口圓(yuan)滑(hua)的(de)(de)(de)換熱管與管板平(ping)齊、換熱管端(duan)下沉的(de)(de)(de)結構,它會產生較(jiao)大的(de)(de)(de)入(ru)口斷面收縮率(參考(kao)文獻如此,個(ge)人不(bu)太理解),在(zai)管口可能存在(zai)介質沖蝕。

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